Page 1:Brought To You By Granny’s Radio
Page 2:How A Switching Power Supply Works
Page 3:Efficiency, Efficiency, Efficiency!
Page 4:Of Power Factors, Apparent Power, And Effective Power
Page 5:How To Spot An Efficient PSU?
Page 6:Don't Get Burned: Safely Before Stinginess
Page 7:How To Determine Your Power Requirements
Page 8:The Power Window Is Important
Page 9:Example 1: The Office PC
Page 10:Example 2: Mid-Range Gaming PC
Page 11:Example 3: The Enthusiast’s System
Page 12:If You Don't Like Our Advice, Buy A Fire Extinguisher
How To Spot An Efficient PSU?
Guidelines, Rules, And Regulations
One of the most important indicators of a PSU’s efficiency is whether it complies with the Energy Star 5.0 guidelines and the 80 PLUS standard. The latter applies primarily to computer power supplies and is recognized worldwide. Additionally, if you’re located in a European country, CE conformity and compliance with ErP guidelines are also important.
80 PLUS PSUs Are More Efficient
The specifications, norms, and guidelines we just mentioned all call for high efficiency, as well as improved power quality. Power supplies that conform to these demanding and very strictly-interpreted rules by passing a defined set of tests may then be marked with the 80 PLUS badge appropriate to its efficiency level. While the load/stress tests may not correspond to those defined by the ATX specification, that’s acceptable in this case. Here’s some good news for our European readers: since the tests are conducted using the lower US voltages, these power supplies achieve even higher efficiency levels in the European 220 V grid.
80 PLUS: Platinum, Gold, Silver, Bronze
The original concept of the 80 PLUS certification has been revised, adding new, more strictly-defined efficiency levels. The bronze, silver, gold, and platinum certifications each come with their own requirements. Thus, a PSU that is certified “80 PLUS Gold” or “80 PLUS Platinum” is more efficient than a normal unit. The downside is that the more complex circuitry needed to hit those levels generally results in a higher price tag, too.
Below you’ll find a table that shows what efficiency levels a PSU has to achieve at a given load to make the grade for a specific certification level.
|Efficiency at 20% Load||Efficiency at 50% Load||Efficiency at 100% Load|
|80 PLUS Bronze||82%||85%||82%|
|80 PLUS Silver||85%||88%||85%|
|80 PLUS Gold||87%||90%||87%|
|80 PLUS Platinum||90%||92%||89%|
When Off Isn't Really Off: A Few Words On Standby Power Consumption
When you shut down your computer, the PSU doesn’t really switch off completely. This is necessary for features such as Wake-on-LAN to work. The point is that the power supply keeps drawing some power, even when the computer is off. Newer PSUs, especially ones sold in Europe and certified to be ErP/EuP-compliant, draw less than 1 W in this standby mode. If you’re serious about conserving power, go for a newer model with ErP support.
Which Power Rails Are Important?
That brings us to one of the most crucial points of modern power supplies: namely, the power they are able to supply at various voltages. Nowadays, PCs draw the majority of their power from the +12 V rail. By comparison, the other two voltages, 3.3 and 5 V, play a far less important role. That’s why you can use the following as a rule of thumb: if a PSU’s 12 V rail can supply all of the required power with room to spare, then the lower voltages are sufficient as well.
However, the opposite is not necessarily the case. Let’s compare the spec stickers of two PSU models:
The difference is quite obvious. Although the second model is billed as a 550 W unit, its +12 V rails only add up to 380 W, and even that only holds true if the other rails aren’t being stressed simultaneously! Nobody needs 315 W on the 3.3 and 5 V rails. In practice, this power supply would probably reach its limit at a load of 350 W on the 12 V rail.
Ironically, even a good 425 W PSU could push more power than this model at 12 V. Don’t fall for this sort of trickery.
Initial Cost Vs. Energy Savings
Quality products cost more initially, but that doesn’t necessarily always translate into lower cost in the long run. That’s why we’ll take a look at a few specific components and their prices in a moment to determine the type of PSU makes the most sense in a given environment, and what kind of savings you can achieve, if any. Some of the results may surprise you!
It’s not enough to focus solely on the financial aspect, though, because we also have to consider durability, reliability, and safety. We go into more detail on these points on the next page.
- Brought To You By Granny’s Radio
- How A Switching Power Supply Works
- Efficiency, Efficiency, Efficiency!
- Of Power Factors, Apparent Power, And Effective Power
- How To Spot An Efficient PSU?
- Don't Get Burned: Safely Before Stinginess
- How To Determine Your Power Requirements
- The Power Window Is Important
- Example 1: The Office PC
- Example 2: Mid-Range Gaming PC
- Example 3: The Enthusiast’s System
- If You Don't Like Our Advice, Buy A Fire Extinguisher