Picking The Right Power Supply: What You Should Know

Efficiency, Efficiency, Efficiency!

“How Much Do I Get Out, When I Put This Much In?”

While this is a valid question, we should probably rephrase it a little. Usually, you call the ratio between the amount of power drawn (from the wall wart) and the amount of power that is put out (to the computer) efficiency. The lower the amount of power a PSU has to draw in order to output a specific target power, the higher its efficiency.

While we’re at it, we’d like to clear up a very common misunderstanding regarding efficiency. If you have a 500 W power supply with an efficiency of 75 percent, that doesn’t mean it can only output 375 W to the PC. Instead, it has to draw 666 W from the wall in order to provide 500 W to the computer. So, the correct version of our question is, “How much power does my PC draw from the wall when it requires a certain amount of power?”


Let’s assume we’re really pushing our PC and it needs 600 W. Our PSU is rated at 80% efficiency. Here’s what it’s really drawing from the grid:

 600 W / 0.80 = 750 W

Ideally, our PC will draw about 750 W from the wall under load. The remaining 150 W are, quite simply, wasted, and usually dissipated by the PSU as heat.

Nothing Is Constant, Not Even Loss

Our example above only holds true in an ideal world though, and since we don’t have super-efficient Star Trek technology, things usually don’t end up being that straightforward. A computer is used in various states, ranging from idle to full throttle, if you will, with every shade in between. Obviously, it will use the least power while idling on the desktop, more in casual use, and most under full load (3D graphics or intense calculations). Thus, we can’t expect to see constant power usage. Instead, we have to assume at least two states, namely idle and load. Now, let’s take a look at the efficiency of our hypothetical 600 W power supply under various loads.

Uh-oh; what’s this? Our nice, straightforward explanation seems to get bent out of shape in that graph. Looking at the curve, we can see that the PSU reaches its peak efficiency at about 50% of its nominal capacity.

Now, a clever observer would suggest that simply making the PSU twice as powerful should solve that problem. While this is correct in principle, that same clever observer would be forgetting something: the idle state. And this is where modern switching power supplies run into trouble. If their load drops to below 20%, their efficiency plummets to 60 or 50%, possibly even less. Ironically, this situation is only exacerbated by the power-saving mechanisms implemented in modern PC components. For example, a powerful system with a good graphics card can get by with as little as 65 W when idling, but draw a good 500 W under load. Thus, you have to ensure that the PSU is neither overtaxed nor under-challenged.


This time, let’s say our 600 W PSU is supplying 65 W to the system. What load does that correspond to?

(100% / 600 W) * 65 W = 10.83%

Now, take a look at our chart, and you’ll see things aren’t looking too good. Houston, we have a problem. Let’s repeat our calculation, this time assuming a 68% efficiency, as suggested by the chart.

65 W / 0.68 = 95.6 W

Despite the fact that the system really only requires 65 W, the PSU is drawing almost 100 W from the wall and turning the remaining 30 W into heat. And these are the numbers for the more efficient of the two hypothetical power supplies, too! Not to get ahead of ourselves, but there were two efficiency curves in that diagram, one for a cheap power supply and another for a more expensive one. And wouldn’t you know it, the supposedly cheap (and fictitious) DragonMegaHyperCombatUltra PSU for 30 bucks turns out to be a real power hog when the system is idling, driving up your power bill in the long run.

Again, this is only a hypothetical example. For our next trick, we’d like to show you what actually happens. As it turns out, we can easily allow for the impact of efficiency in our calculations. Oh, and it’s just as easy to prove that cheap PSUs will often turn out to be a lot more expensive than you might think in the long run.

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  • pjmelect
    A few more words about active power factor correction. APFC won't save you money on your electric bill although the electric companies will love you for it as it minimizes loss over the power lines saving them money, it does however enable you to use a much lower rated battery backup system. A hypothetical example a computer that uses say 200W without APFC would require a backup system of 700W or much more to cope with the large peaks in current where as a power supply with APFC would require a backup system of 250W or so.
    Therefore APFC is only worthwhile if you were to use it with a battery backup system.
  • redgarl
    Toms knows everything... yeah right.
  • turkey3_scratch
    Very well written article! Just one thing. You say:
    Regardless of whether the PC is idling or under full load, voltages may not deviate from their spec by more than five percent according to the ATX spec.

    But the ATX specification seems to disagree. According to the spec, full load or "peak loading" allows 10% deviation from the nominal voltage for the 12V rail.


    Also, Q about the power factor correction. It's probably the most difficult topic to understand. In this case, you say the load would be anything that used power. Are you talking about hardware like a GPU or the internals of the PSU like capacitors and such? Also, say the computer is putting load on the PSU. How is there idle current then?
  • JackNaylorPE
    Voltage Stability ?

    Ripple ?
  • Aks_X
    Unaligned tables :|
  • jossrik
    There have been quite a few instances in the past where you could get an XFX PSU 550w or so for 40$ or less with rebates. I know compared to more modern PSUs they may not stack up, but they used to be pretty decent. Ya, more often than not, the cheaper the PSU the worse the quality, but you really do need to do your homework.
    Budget PSU
  • Aris_Mp
    The newest ATX spec defines 5% at peak load as well. The 10% is only for the -12V rail which is now optional. The newest ATX spec is confidential (dont know why)
  • cats_Paw
    While I can understand that having a beefy power supply on idle state wont be too efficient, its on loads where you want it as efficient as possible.
    Somehow, having a low efficiency under a 65W load is less expensive than low efficiency at 500W load, go figure :D.
  • cats_Paw
    In all fairness, a PC is not a self-maintenance Robot.
    If you want a PC to last a good 10-15 years you need to take care of it:
    Clean dust, replace fans when they fail, replace thermalpaste, check your temperatures from time to time, not turn it on-off-on too fast, keep your Hard drives with some spare space and defraged if they are HDDs....

    There is quite some work for a PC to keep their form, but its not like a human can lay down in bed eating cheese and drinking cola looking like a model either.

    PSUs however have this strange aura of magic around them since some people vastly overestimate what power supply they need (I got a 700W TT one for a load of 320, go figure) and others buy things that are simply bad products, no matter how high the W are.

    I did once burn a PC due to a bad PSU (and I even OCed the damn PC, went down in smoke.. I gotta say it was quite fun, but expensive), so I stay on the safe side (I just simply add an extra 20% for 12v rail amps as long as the price of a quality supply is not doubling).
  • SpAwNtoHell
    Is this write up inteded for who needs to replace a psu on a old system? Test systems are very ineficient really... So we are talking about 80 plus bronze gold on sandy bridge gtx 580 ... Enthusiast system?! My casual gaming needs ask me to upgrade 2-3 generations... I know is just a test for power of psu but not elocvent for some people who would want to use systems as a guide... Otherwise good writeup as now rather to explaining to people why you need a good psu and a optimal size can resume at passing tbis link.
  • mrkillall
    This could be a stupid question but the power coming from the outlet is ac does it get changed to dc somewhere to be reconverted in to ac again or what?
  • Aris_Mp
    there are no stupid questions, no worries.

  • Travis Hershberger
    You should've added a picture of the power supply that actually caught on fire in your low end power-supply comparison!
  • Islam_5
    my pc is powered by an unknown chinese brand labeled as zero 1000 ,it is 1000 watts ,which cost me 50 egyptian pounds about less than 5 us dollars , and yet it is still running my core 2 duo e8400, one stick 8 gb teamelite ram ,nvidia gt 740, gigabyte g41 motherboard and 3 harddisks 4 terbytes in capacity . i am still worried about its safety measures
  • josejones
    I'm curious to learn, at what point is a new PSU a must for new CPU's, mobos and GPUs? I have a Seasonic X-750w I bought new in 2012. What do I look for to know when I need to get a new PSU to go with a new system?

  • Soaptrail
    Thanks, I need to replace an old PSU that is starting to go. I was going to get Gold or Platinum but now I will get Titanium for the extra efficiency at 10% loads.
  • amk-aka-Phantom
    my pc is powered by an unknown chinese brand labeled as zero 1000 ,it is 1000 watts ,which cost me 50 egyptian pounds about less than 5 us dollars , and yet it is still running my core 2 duo e8400, one stick 8 gb teamelite ram ,nvidia gt 740, gigabyte g41 motherboard and 3 harddisks 4 terbytes in capacity . i am still worried about its safety measures

    That build most likely doesn't consume more than 200-300 W (rough guesstimate) at peak load. Try to load your PSU to actual 1000 W and watch the fireworks. Cheap PSUs *never* deliver the wattage they're rated for. At least in the EU and probably in the US regulations forbid selling PSUs that can't actually deliver the rated wattage or don't hold up to safety standards...
  • rayden54
    Thank you very much for the chart. The one bad thing about most calculators is they don't usually break things down very well. I think it's part of the reason why people end up with more PSU than they need: They want to leave room for upgrades, but aren't sure how much or little each extra thing'll cost 'em.
  • RobAC
    Nice article, thank you.

    I recently built a work station / game machine for rendering and the occasional demanding games. I chose a massive power supply that can output a bit more than I need to future proof an upgrade to whatever the 2nd gen Titan X Nvidia is coming out with later on this year.

    The funny thing is, I have a OC 6 core CPU and I can hear the water cool CPU fans spool up and increase in speed when I am rendering - however the PSU fans never turn on at all because it is so efficient and runs so cool. Very impressed technology has advanced so much from over 20yrs ago when I last built a machine. I switched to laptops and a NUC for a few years but got back into building my own full desktop PC.
  • zodiacfml
    The first and second pages just introduce more confusion than clarifying anything.
    It could have shown AC waveforms and converted DC waveforms to show how it works. By the way, introduction on AC and DC currents is a must.
  • ssf_coffee
    Hoping this is the right forum or that you folks are willing to entertain this one:

    I have a system purchased from an engineer whose wife ordered it out of her living room. About $600 for:

    Gigabyte GA-Z87X-HD3
    Intel i7-4770k
    24 GB RAM
    EVGA GeForce GT-740 FTW 1GB

    Some Cooler Master cooler that barely breaks a sweat.
    At 100% load the system runs 60-65 W and 65 degrees C according to the Intel Power Gadget.

    Samsung EVO 240 GB SSD
    2 TB WD Green (most storage is on a NAS)
    Corsair CX500M PSU (four years old?)

    Soprano case

    Now, I'm running three monitors: 2 off the GT740 and one off the integrated. That third monitor usually only has documentation or mail up for viewing. Most of my work is office level junk with the occasional heavy Excel Solver LP/Evol. work, random forests in R, video editing in Camtasia or visualization in Tableau.

    Now, about a month ago, I had an OCZ SSD go bad but also ended up with a system that would only boot to the BIOS and freeze. Draining the CMOS worked and its been solid ever since. I've tried adding a few other older IDE items (DVD, and 250 Zip drive) using converters but it seemed to be unreliable for booting it would sometimes come up and sometimes would refuse to even power up. The system has also complains occasionally about the power use on the USB (iBeam whiteboard system?).

    When I'm not using it the CPU is pegged doing work for the World Community Grid using the BOINC grid client. So the CPU runs max most of the time.

    Someone suggested the PSU was at its limit.

    Now, I've thought about swapping out the PSU for a Corsair HX850i (refurb) which is currently on sale. I assume it will be a simple swap.

    I also just received a Sapphire Radeon HD7850 2GB card (free)

    Now, I'm hoping a new PSU will deal with the power issues and perhaps be a bit more efficient given the current 100% constant load. It would be nice to have room for upgrades for when I win the lottery and spring for a pair of 1080s. In fact, a GPU upgrade might be possible in the near future.

    So the questions are:

    1. Is the Corsair HX850i going to solve the too much load problem (assuming that is the problem).

    2. How about the graphics cards, should I use both the Nvidia and AMD or simply use one OR use one or more with the integrated Intel graphics. Will any of these cause bottlenecks?

    3. While I'm at it, is adding another 8GB of memory worthwhile? I've hit a memory wall a few times (using R I've gotten a 64GB image running) but I'm wondering if more will actually help on the day to day stuff.

    Would love to hear your thoughts and thank you.

    - David
  • youcanDUit
    the one thing that's really important about psu's is jonnyguru.com is the place you an trust.
  • turkey3_scratch
    593370 said:
    the one thing that's really important about psu's is jonnyguru.com is the place you an trust.

    Jonnyguru is not the only reputable site. I don't see why people seem to think this.