Yes it certainly will fit.
To give you an idea:The photo above shows the Bitfenix Neos case and the Asus M5A97 LE R2.0 motherboard fitted with a much larger GPU (the Gigabyte R9 280 Windforce with triple fan) measuring L296mm x W134mm x H43mm.
The Asus GTX 1060 Dual
is a much smaller GPU (with dual fans) measuring L242mm x W130mm x H43mm
(difference of L54mm x W4mm x H0mm).
On another note, what CPU are you currently using? An FX-6300? If so, you might not achieve to get the GTX 1060's max. possible graphics performance due to a weaker CPU (for reference: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Q7lIYRK5T0ABLvAkgbM_2jJGvbhlep27mR-eRcCy4FA/edit#gid=0)