Are you sure you plugged the fan into the right connector? some boards will not boot if they don't detect a cpu fan
Otherwise it sounds like a heat issue which would indicate the cooler is not fitted correctly or the cpu paste is not working. Did you clean it off and reapply?.
Also stock intel coolers can be a little awkward to refit, sometimes the push pins don't go back to how they need to be and you have to slide the white part down off the black inner pin before pushing the white part through the board. Hard to tell without looking under the board how well it has worked.
If you can get it to start go into the BIOS and check the temperatures before starting up, it should be running cool in the BIOS because there's no load on the CPU. Another issue with the Hyper 212 is the stock fan can run a bit slow for the default BIOS settings, I had to lower the warning threshold on mine but that wasn't stopping it from booting, just causing an alarm.