I am swapping cases today and my parts are kinda dusty I was wondering if I can use a portable air compressor to clean the dust off in short bursts because i don't have a can of compressed air on hand?
Depends on the compressor.
A tire inflator? Not really. Not enough volume.
A real air compressor? Yes. Just be very,very careful about the pressure.
I used mine a couple of days ago to blow the gunk out.